The Bubble Nebula NGC 7635 - testing the wind-blown bubble theory
Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Todt, H.; Sabin, L.; Oskinova, L. M.; Chu, Y. -H.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Gómez-González, V. M. A.
We present a multiwavelength study of the iconic Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635) and its ionizing star BD+60 2522. We obtained XMM-Newton EPIC X-ray observations to search for extended X-ray emission as in other similar wind-blown bubbles around massive stars. We also obtained San Pedro Mártir spectroscopic observations with the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer to study the dynamics of the Bubble Nebula. Although our EPIC observations are deep, we do not detect extended X-ray emission from this wind-blown bubble. On the other hand, BD+60 2522 is a bright X-ray source similar to other O stars. We used the stellar atmosphere code PoWR to characterize BD+60 2522 and found that this star is a young O-type star with stellar wind capable of producing a wind-blown bubble that in principle could be filled with hot gas. We discussed our findings in line with recent numerical simulations proposing that the Bubble Nebula has been formed as the result of the fast motion of BD+60 2522 through the medium. Our kinematic study shows that the Bubble Nebula is composed by a series of nested shells, some showing blister-like structures, but with little signatures of hydrodynamical instabilities that would mix the material producing diffuse X-ray emission as seen in other wind-blown bubbles. Its morphology seems to be merely the result of projection effects of these different shells.
Preprint (toala-bubble-nebula-2020.pdf, 10.8MB)
This paper in ADS