Macroclumping, Magnetic Fields, and X-Rays in Massive Stars

Lidia Oskinova, Wolf-Rainer Hamann, Helge Todt, Andreas Sander

Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Germany

Modern stellar wind models should account for new effects that were traditionally ignored in classical model atmospheres. Among these effects are stellar magnetic fields, X-ray emission, and wind clumping. The X-rays strongly affect the ionization structure of the winds. In O-type supergiants, clumping must be accounted for in the models to derive correct stellar parameters from X-ray or UV spectroscopy

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