The extreme O-type spectroscopic binary HD93129A

Gruner, D.; Hainich, R.; Sander, A. A. C.; Shenar, T.; Todt, H.; Oskinova, L. M.; Ramachandran, V.; Ayres, T.; Hamann, W.-R.

HD93129A was classified as the earliest O-type star in the Galaxy (O2~If*) and is considered as the prototype of its spectral class. However, interferometry shows that this object is a binary system, while recent observations even suggest a triple configuration. None of the previous spectral analyses of this object accounted for its multiplicity. With new high-resolution UV and optical spectra, we have the possibility to reanalyze this key object, taking its binary nature into account for the first time. We aim to derive the fundamental parameters and the evolutionary status of HD\,93129A, identifying the contributions of both components to the composite spectrum. We analyzed UV and optical observations acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope and ESO's Very Large Telescope. A multiwavelength analysis of the system was performed using the latest version of the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. Despite the similar spectral types of the two components, we are able to find signatures from each of the components in the combined spectrum, which allows us to estimate the parameters of both stars. We derive $\log (L/L_\odot) = 6.15$, $T_{\textrm{eff}}=52\,$kK, and log$\,\dot{M}=-4.7\,[M_\odot\text{yr}^{-1}]$ for the primary Aa, and $\log (L/L_\odot)=5.58$, $T_{\textrm{eff}}=45\,$kK, and log$\,\dot{M}=-5.8\,[M_\odot\text{yr}^{-1}]$ for the secondary Ab. Even when accounting for the binary nature, the primary of HD93129A is found to be one of the hottest and most luminous O stars in our Galaxy. Based on the theoretical decomposition of the spectra, we assign spectral types O2~If* and O3~III(f*) to components Aa and Ab, respectively. While we achieve a good fit for a wide spectral range, specific spectral features are not fully reproduced. The data are not sufficient to identify contributions from a hypothetical third component in the system.

Preprint (gruner-2019.pdf, 7.2MB)

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