Macroclumping, Magnetic Fields, and X-Rays in Massive Stars
Lidia Oskinova, Wolf-Rainer Hamann, Helge Todt, Andreas Sander
Modern stellar wind models should account for new effects that were traditionally ignored in classical model atmospheres. Among these effects are stellar magnetic fields, X-ray emission, and wind clumping. The X-rays strongly affect the ionization structure of the winds. In O-type supergiants, clumping must be accounted for in the models to derive correct stellar parameters from X-ray or UV spectroscopy
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