Hydrogen-deficient central stars of planetary nebulæ
Central stars of planetary nebulæ are low-mass stars on the brink of their final evolution towards white dwarfs. Because of their surface temperature of above 25,000 K their UV radiation ionizes the surrounding material, which was ejected in an earlier phase of their evolution. Such fluorescent circumstellar gas is called a "Planetary Nebula".
About one-tenth of the Galactic central stars are hydrogen-deficient. Generally, the surface of these central stars is a mixture of helium, carbon, and oxygen resulting from partial helium burning. Moreover, most of them have a strong stellar wind, similar to massive Pop-I Wolf-Rayet stars, and are in analogy classified as [WC]. The brackets distinguish the special type from the massive WC stars.
Qualitative spectral analyses of [WC] stars lead to the assumption of an evolutionary sequence from the cooler, so-called late-type [WCL] stars to the very hot, early-type [WCE] stars.
Quantitative analyses of the winds of [WC] stars became possible by means of computer programs that solve the radiative transfer in the co-moving frame, together with the statistical equilibrium equations for the population numbers. First analyses employing models without iron-line blanketing resulted in systematically different abundances for [WCL] and [WCE] stars. While the mass ratio of He:C is roughly 40:50 for [WCL] stars, it is 60:30 in average for [WCE] stars. The postulated evolution from [WCL] to [WCE] however could only lead to an increase of carbon, since heavier elements are built up by nuclear fusion.
In the present work, improved models are used to re-analyze the [WCE] stars and to confirm their He:C abundance ratio. Refined models, calculated with the Potsdam WR model atmosphere code (PoWR), account now for line-blanketing due to iron group elements, small scale wind inhomogeneities, and complex model atoms for He, C, O, H, P, N, and Ne. Referring to stellar evolutionary models for the hydrogen-deficient [WC] stars, Ne and N abundances are of particular interest. Only one out of three different evolutionary channels, the VLTP scenario, leads to a Ne and N overabundance of a few percent by mass. A VLTP, a very late thermal pulse, is a rapid increase of the energy production of the helium-burning shell, while hydrogen burning has already ceased. Subsequently, the hydrogen envelope is mixed with deeper layers and completely burnt in the presence of C, He, and O. This results in the formation of N and Ne.
A sample of eleven [WCE] stars has been analyzed. For three of them, PB 6, NGC 5189, and [S71d]3, a N overabundance of 1.5% has been found, while for three other [WCE] stars such high abundances of N can be excluded. In the case of NGC 5189, strong spectral lines of Ne can be reproduced qualitatively by our models. At present, the Ne mass fraction can only be roughly estimated from the Ne emission lines and seems to be in the order of a few percent by mass.
Furthermore, using a diagnostic He-C line pair, the He:C abundance ratio of 60:30 for [WCE] stars is confirmed.
Within the framework of the analysis, a new class of hydrogen-deficient
central stars has been discovered, with PB 8 as its first member. Its
atmospheric mixture resembles rather that of the massive WNL stars
than of the [WC] stars. The determined mass fractions H:He:C:N:O
are 40:55:1.3:2:1.3. As the wind of PB 8 contains significant
amounts of O and C, in contrast to WN stars, a classification as
[WN/WC] is suggested.
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