The Surface Composition of Hydrogen-deficient Post-AGB Stars
W.-R. Hamann, G. Gräfener
Most Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae exhibit a spectrum of a hydrogen-rich hot star with little or no stellar wind. About 20 % of the CSPN, however, show entirely different spectra dominated by bright and broad emission lines of carbon, oxygen and helium, resembling the so-called Wolf-Rayet (WR) spectral class originally established for massive, Pop. I stars. These spectra indicate a hydrogen-deficient surface composition and, at the same time, strong mass-loss. As the WR spectra are formed entirely in a dense stellar wind, their spectral analysis requires adequate modelling. Corresponding Non-LTE model atmospheres have been developed in the last decade and became more and more sophisticated. They have been applied yet for analyzing almost all available WR-type CSPN spectra, establishing the stellar parameters. The obtained surface abundances are not understandable in terms of "classical" evolutionary calculations, but agree in principle with the advanced models for AGB evolution which account consistently for diffusive mixing and nuclear burning. The underabundance of iron, which we established in a recent study of a WC-type central star (LMC-SMP 61), gives indirect evidence that neutron-capture synthesis has converted Fe into s-process elements.